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  1. Content. Coating Techniques. Page. Gravure Roller. 4. Multi Roller. 5. Slot Die. 6. Extruder. 7. Scatter. 8. Paste Dot. 9. Double Dot. Powder Dot. Lamination . Purpose. To laminate adhesive coated substrates with decorative fabrics. Manufacturer. Villars. Lacom. Santex. In combination with. Scatter line. Hotmelt line.:
    Kiss coater. gravure reverse. Knife over roll. Hot Melt. Mayer rod. Slot Die. Metering Bar. The Coating Methods can be classified by the principles used to control the coating weight. There are three basic . The Comma coating system is a spreader for processing of highly viscous aqueous and solvent-containing adhesives. apllication systems. Laminators for packaging/encapsulation. Bus bar application lines. Diode setting and soldering. Adhesive apllication on films .. Roller. Case Knife. Commabar. Double Side. Knife. Slot Die. Powder. Scattering. >30 application systems. Coating Systems. Technologies & Processes. The zinc oxide, P3HT:PCBM and vanadium(V)oxide layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide (VTIP). Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated.
  2. Roll-to-roll slot die production of mm large area silver nanowire mesh films for flexible transparent electrodes† . To produce the AgNW ink suitable for the slot die coating process, wt% of the aforementioned AgNWs were dispersed in a mixed solution. Adhesive strength (H/C), / (5B).:
    SLOT DIE OR EXTRUSION COATING In this method plasticized coating compound is pressed through a sheeting die and transferred directly onto the substrate to be coated. In the traditional slot die coating system the die lip is in contact with the substrate and backed by the roller which imparts. PSA ahesives can be applied by mayer rod, direct gravure or slot die methods. Adhesive film coating services, scatter/powder adhesive coating services, hot melt adhesive coating services, spray adhesive coating services, bulk adhesive coating services, waterbased adhesive coating services, foam. A major trend in the development of new web coated products is the requirement to coat thin, functional coatings on a thin substrate. Figure 1 is a typical window for the slot die coater. It shows the The layout of the feed and return lines should be adjusted so there is no air drawn into the system.
  3. The method of claim 1, wherein the liquid optically clear composition is deposited to form a layer having a thickness of from about 1 μηι to about 5 mm. . The slot die coating head is controlled by servo motor to move above substrate, while adhesive is pumped by a metering pump to dispense liquid composition from the.:
  4. :

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This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: Recognition and Transformation of Molecules within Constrained Environments.

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Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. Georgia,"Times New Roman",serif; letter-spacing: Volume 4, Issue 1. No citations found yet 0.

By following authors Nieves Espinosa. One email with all search results. One email for each search. Open Access This article is freely available re-usable Materials , 4 1 , ; doi: Tanenbaum 3 , Jens W. PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full roll-to-roll R2R processing of all layers.

The ITO and silver electrodes were processed and patterned by use of screen printing. The zinc oxide, P3HT: PCBM and vanadium V oxide layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium V oxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide VTIP.

Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated vanadium V oxide layer by varying the concentration of the VTIP precursor over two orders of magnitude. Hydrated vanadium V oxide layers were characterized by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering.

The power conversion efficiency PCE for completed modules was up to 0. Stability tests under indoor and outdoor conditions were accomplished over three weeks on a solar tracker. Introduction Polymer solar cells [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] have seen remarkable progress in recent years and have developed from being a scientific curiosity to an emerging technology that can be manufactured industrially [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ] and demonstrated in real applications [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ].

Polymer solar cells have been heralded as the photovoltaic PV technology solving all the problems current PV technologies are faced with by providing convincing solutions to problems of cost and abundance of the materials that constitute them. The largest challenges to overcome this far have been the low performance and the short operational lifetime. The typical polymer solar cell is a multilayer structure with typically five layers stacked on top of each other.

The active layer responsible for light absorption and generation of free charge carriers is typically the middle layer sandwiched between two charge selective layers, as shown in Figure 1. The two outer layers are highly conducting electrodes for extraction of the generated electrical current.

One of those must be transparent. The electron selective layers have been developed recently but have otherwise been limited to the intentional use of low work function metals alone or in combination with very thin wide band gap insulators such as LiF and MgF 2.

Relatively recently, a new class of moderately conducting electron selective layers have been explored ZnO, TiO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 [ 16 ]. PSS was first employed as an intermediate layer that served to stabilize the work function of ITO and to planarize it, thus enabling formation of nearly defect free thin films on top [ 17 ].

PSS has evolved and now exist in various formulations that provide exceptionally high conductivity and transparency. PSS is highly stable photochemically and is stable towards oxidative conditions. Schematic of inverted polymer solar cell structure with typical layer thicknesses shown. PSS, however, is its hygroscopic nature.

This problem is normally never encountered under laboratory conditions where experimenters work under relatively dry indoor conditions or in a glovebox environment with nearly no humidity.

This affinity for water also represents a problem when depositing by a roll-to-roll method, due to the high surface tension of the PEDOT: For the purpose of this study, we constructed two different types of polymer solar cell modules: PSS had been replaced with hydrated vanadium V oxide.

Global resources are estimated to exceed 63 million tons; making vanadium the 13th most-abundant element in the Earth's crust. The materials employed are shown in Figure 2.

Chemical structures of materials employed in this study: Binary combinations of vanadium and oxygen have a rich phase diagram with a wide range of stable compounds with different valence states for vanadium. In addition, it is common to have xerogels of these compounds with water layered between vanadium oxide sheets [ 18 ]. PSS replacement for polymer solar cells prepared under industrially relevant conditions. We employ solutions of vanadyl-triisopropoxide VTIP in isopropanol and demonstrate roll-to-roll R2R coating of this layer in functional polymer solar cells and modules in contrast to previous OPVs [ 19 ] and OLEDs [ 20 ] where vanadium oxide films were prepared via thermal evaporation or from a spin casting powder in alcohol [ 21 ].

PSS equivalent under accelerated indoor and outdoor conditions. In this study, we have three different classes of devices, as shown in Figure 3 , with active areas of 0.

Image of a typical glass cell, gradient cell, and 16 cell module from left to right with a mm scale. Small devices were prepared with a four cell substrate with ITO patterned in stripes giving 0. Cells having different concentrations of VTIP in isopropanol 3. Best results, shown in Figure 4 , were achieved with one or two layers of A company that provides a service such as rental, repair, security, training, cleaning, etc. A sales company that is contracted by a manufacturer to sell their products.

Remanufacturer Remanufacturers rebuild products to OEM specifications by using a combination of used, repaired and new parts. A company that sells products manufactured by a 3rd party.

An organization, also known as an industry trade group, founded by businesses that operate in a specific industry that collaborates between its member companies. Quality Certifications are issued to suppliers by an accredited third party, verifying that the supplier complies with established quality standards.

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Safety and security programs often fall into this group. View detailed content on suppliers and their products, services, and capabilities; access operational and financial risk info. Create, save and share shortlists, compare suppliers side-by-side, single-send RFIs to multiple suppliers. Website Last Modified December 16, Apply Qualifications Search Within Miles 10 miles 25 miles 50 miles miles miles miles 1, miles. Company Type Company Type Close. Quality Certifications Quality Certifications Close.

This article explains how

Safety and security programs often fall into this group. View detailed content on suppliers and their products, services, and capabilities; access operational and financial risk info.

Create, save and share shortlists, compare suppliers side-by-side, single-send RFIs to multiple suppliers. Website Last Modified December 16, Apply Qualifications Search Within Miles 10 miles 25 miles 50 miles miles miles miles 1, miles. Company Type Company Type Close. Quality Certifications Quality Certifications Close. ISO Not Specified. Minority Owned Not Specified. Woman Owned Not Specified.

Product Detail Product Catalogs. New Jersey - North. New York - Metro. New York - Upstate. Adhesive Coating Services Displaying 1 to 25 out of results. Adhesive Coating Services Capabilities. All Foam Products Co. Mechanical Jobbers - Locations. Can-Do National Tape, Inc.

Emtexglobal - Danvers, MA. Barrel Plating Service, Inc. You seem to have javascript disabled. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. Georgia,"Times New Roman",serif; letter-spacing: Volume 4, Issue 1. No citations found yet 0. By following authors Nieves Espinosa. One email with all search results. One email for each search.

Open Access This article is freely available re-usable Materials , 4 1 , ; doi: Tanenbaum 3 , Jens W. PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full roll-to-roll R2R processing of all layers. The ITO and silver electrodes were processed and patterned by use of screen printing.

The zinc oxide, P3HT: PCBM and vanadium V oxide layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium V oxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide VTIP. Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated vanadium V oxide layer by varying the concentration of the VTIP precursor over two orders of magnitude. Hydrated vanadium V oxide layers were characterized by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering.

The power conversion efficiency PCE for completed modules was up to 0. Stability tests under indoor and outdoor conditions were accomplished over three weeks on a solar tracker. Introduction Polymer solar cells [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] have seen remarkable progress in recent years and have developed from being a scientific curiosity to an emerging technology that can be manufactured industrially [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ] and demonstrated in real applications [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ].

Polymer solar cells have been heralded as the photovoltaic PV technology solving all the problems current PV technologies are faced with by providing convincing solutions to problems of cost and abundance of the materials that constitute them.

The largest challenges to overcome this far have been the low performance and the short operational lifetime. The typical polymer solar cell is a multilayer structure with typically five layers stacked on top of each other. The active layer responsible for light absorption and generation of free charge carriers is typically the middle layer sandwiched between two charge selective layers, as shown in Figure 1.

The two outer layers are highly conducting electrodes for extraction of the generated electrical current. One of those must be transparent. The electron selective layers have been developed recently but have otherwise been limited to the intentional use of low work function metals alone or in combination with very thin wide band gap insulators such as LiF and MgF 2.

Relatively recently, a new class of moderately conducting electron selective layers have been explored ZnO, TiO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 [ 16 ]. PSS was first employed as an intermediate layer that served to stabilize the work function of ITO and to planarize it, thus enabling formation of nearly defect free thin films on top [ 17 ]. PSS has evolved and now exist in various formulations that provide exceptionally high conductivity and transparency.

PSS is highly stable photochemically and is stable towards oxidative conditions. Schematic of inverted polymer solar cell structure with typical layer thicknesses shown. PSS, however, is its hygroscopic nature. This problem is normally never encountered under laboratory conditions where experimenters work under relatively dry indoor conditions or in a glovebox environment with nearly no humidity.

This affinity for water also represents a problem when depositing by a roll-to-roll method, due to the high surface tension of the PEDOT: For the purpose of this study, we constructed two different types of polymer solar cell modules: PSS had been replaced with hydrated vanadium V oxide. Global resources are estimated to exceed 63 million tons; making vanadium the 13th most-abundant element in the Earth's crust.

The materials employed are shown in Figure 2. Chemical structures of materials employed in this study: Binary combinations of vanadium and oxygen have a rich phase diagram with a wide range of stable compounds with different valence states for vanadium.

In addition, it is common to have xerogels of these compounds with water layered between vanadium oxide sheets [ 18 ]. PSS replacement for polymer solar cells prepared under industrially relevant conditions. We employ solutions of vanadyl-triisopropoxide VTIP in isopropanol and demonstrate roll-to-roll R2R coating of this layer in functional polymer solar cells and modules in contrast to previous OPVs [ 19 ] and OLEDs [ 20 ] where vanadium oxide films were prepared via thermal evaporation or from a spin casting powder in alcohol [ 21 ].

PSS equivalent under accelerated indoor and outdoor conditions. In this study, we have three different classes of devices, as shown in Figure 3 , with active areas of 0. Image of a typical glass cell, gradient cell, and 16 cell module from left to right with a mm scale.

Small devices were prepared with a four cell substrate with ITO patterned in stripes giving 0. Cells having different concentrations of VTIP in isopropanol 3. Best results, shown in Figure 4 , were achieved with one or two layers of These initial test results indicated that there is a range of concentration between 6. It is clear from Figure 4 that the currents supported by the hydrated vanadium oxide films are lower than the PEDOT control sample.

One critical aspect when developing new inks for R2R coating is to establish the relationship between the thickness of the dried layer that is to be coated and the coating parameters for the wet film. We have developed a method for variation of the ink properties of any layer during coating enabling identification of the optimal thickness, the critical thickness or the optimal blend ratio between donor and acceptor.

Complete devices without the hydrated vanadium oxide layer are not functional, and once the covering layer is already on top of the others, devices become functional. This is shown in Figure 5 for three series of 50 individual cells with active areas of 4.

were

The slot-die method, which is most frequently used for the formation of transparent electrodes, causes no damage to the substrate through contact when the conductive material is coated on a substrate and is optimized for the fast production of thin precise coating products.

The slot-die coating injects ink into the slot-die using a gear pump and discharges a certain amount of ink. The discharged ink from the slot-die is coated on the substrate and forms a thin film.

The desired thickness of the thin film is governed by the volume flow rate of ink, the physical properties of the ink viscosity, surface tension etc. Furthermore, as the ink used for coating is stored inside a sealed container, it does not show problems such as changing viscosity and contamination by foreign substances. Moreover, slot-die coating has an easy configuration and simple process steps that present low manufacturing costs and mass production conditions. Therefore, the slot-die coating technique has been widely used in numerous application fields and is mainly used in the manufacture of flexible transparent electrodes.

Because the slot-die method is sensitive to the feed speed of the substrate film, thickness of the substrate film, ink flow rate, coating gap, shim plate thickness, the contact angle when the coating fluid contacts the web, and the physical properties of the web, they must be investigated in advance.

Moreover, the ink properties are appropriately adjusted to avoid instabilities, such as leakage, bead break-up, and ribbing problems during the die coating process. Moreover, metal nanowire-based ink was used in this study; the solvent type, the size and shape of the nanowires, and the degree of dispersion of the ink were carefully decided to perform a successful manufacturing process.

To keep the coating process stable, the process conditions, such as the physical properties of the coating fluid, the die structure, and operation conditions, were analyzed and maintained. Furthermore, some impurities e. Ag nanoparticles were generated during the synthesis of the AgNWs and increased the haze when used as a transparent electrode. Particularly, high surface roughness results in difficultly in device fabrication.

After purification using centrifugation at rpm for 10 min, only AgNWs existed with no impurities see Fig. The films were prepared by mixing an ethylene glycol solution into isopropyl alcohol, which gave the best characteristics for ink manufacturing, as obtained from our preliminary experiments. If no dispersant is used for ink formation, agglomeration of the AgNWs, which results in a negative effect on the electrical and optical properties, will be observed.

Due to the van der Waals forces, the AgNWs are agglomerated and settle over time. Color gamut and contrast of the display panel can be improved under ambient conditions. Optical assemblies having a filled gap can also exhibit improved shock-resistance compared to the same assemblies having an air gap. Optical materials used to fill gaps between optical components or substrates typically comprise adhesives and various types of cured polymeric compositions.

However, these optical materials are not useful for making an optical assembly if, at a later time, one wishes to disassemble or rework the assembly with little or no damage to the components. This reworkability feature is needed for optical assemblies because the components tend to be fragile and expensive. For example, a cover sheet often needs to be removed from a display panel if flaws are observed during or after assembly or if the cover sheet is damaged after sale.

It is desirable to rework the assembly by removing the cover sheet from the display panel with little or no damage to the components. Reworkability is becoming increasingly important as the size or area of available display panels continues to increase. An optical assembly having a large size or area can be difficult to manufacture, especially if efficiency and stringent optical quality are desired. A gap between optical components may be filled by pouring or injecting a curable composition into the gap followed by curing the composition to bond the components together.

However, these commonly used compositions have long flow-out times which contribute to inefficient manufacturing methods for large optical assemblies. The optical assembly disclosed herein comprises an adhesive layer and optical components, particularly a display panel and a substantially light transmissive substrate.

The adhesive layer allows one to rework the assembly with little or no damage to the components. Total energy to cleavage can be less than about 25 kg-mm over a 1 by 1 inch 2. The adhesive layer is suitable for optical applications. These transmission characteristics provide for uniform transmission of light across the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum which is important to maintain the color point in full color displays.

These haze characteristics provide for low light scattering which is important to maintain the quality of the output in full color displays. The refractive index of the adhesive can be controlled by the proper choice of adhesive components. For example, the refractive index can be increased by incorporating oligomers, diluting monomers and the like which contain a higher content of aromatic structure or incorporate sulfur or halogens such as bromine.

Conversely the refractive index can be adjusted to lower values by incorporating oligomer, diluting monomers and the like that contain a higher content of aliphatic structure. For example, the adhesive layer may have a refractive index of from about 1.

The adhesive may remain transparent by the proper choice of adhesive components including oligomers, diluting monomers, fillers, plasticizers, tackifying resins, photoinitiators and any other component which contributes to the overall properties of the adhesive.

In particular, the adhesive components should be compatible with each other, for example they should not phase separate before or after cure to the point where domain size and refractive index differences cause light scattering and haze to develop, unless haze is a desired outcome, such as for diffuse adhesive applications.

In addition the adhesive components should be free of particles that do not dissolve in the adhesive formulation and are large enough to scatter light, and thereby contribute to haze.

If haze is desired, such as in diffuse adhesive applications, this may be acceptable. In addition, various fillers such as thixotropic materials should be so well dispersed that they do not contribute to phase separation or light scattering which can contribute to a loss of light transmission and an increase in haze. Again, if haze is desired, such as in diffuse adhesive applications, this may be acceptable. The adhesive layer can be used in optical assembly comprising: The adhesive layer may have any thickness.

The particular thickness employed in the optical assembly may be determined by any number of factors, for example, the design of the optical device in which the optical assembly is used may require a certain gap between the display panel and the substantially transparent substrate. The adhesive layer may be made using a liquid optically clear adhesive or liquid composition in combination with a thixotrope, wherein the liquid composition has a viscosity suitable for efficient manufacturing of large optical assemblies.

A large optical assembly may have an area of from about 15 to about 5 m 2 or from about 15 cm 2 to about 1 m 2. The liquid composition is amenable for use in a variety of manufacturing methods. The adhesive layer can include any liquid optically clear adhesive having a viscosity such that when combined with a thixotrope, the adhesive layer has a viscosity of no more than 30 Pa. This range at sec "1 governs the ability of the adhesive layer to flow and sufficiently fill the desired coating area and to minimize the presence of air bubbles in the desired coating area.

The range of 1- 10 sec "1 is the potential shear rate of the adhesive during the coating process, but there is potential for the adhesive to be coated at higher shear rates. The range at 0. In one embodiment, the liquid optically clear adhesive used in the adhesive layer has a viscosity of about 20 Pa-s or less at a shear rate of 1- 10 sec "1. In particular, the liquid optically clear adhesive has a viscosity of about 10 Pa-s or less and more particularly about 5 Pa-s or less at a shear rate of 1- 10 sec "1.

Within these ranges, the viscosity of the adhesive layer will be in the appropriate range when a thixotrope is added. In general, meth acrylate refers to both acrylate and methacrylate functionality. The multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer may comprise any one or more of: The multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer may comprise at least two meth acrylate groups, e.

The particular multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer used, as well as the amount used, may depend on a variety of factors. The multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer may comprise a multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomer having at least two meth acrylate groups, e. In general, these oligomers comprise the reaction product of a polyol with a multifunctional isocyanate, followed by termination with a hydroxy- functionalized meth acrylate. For example, the multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomer may be formed from an aliphatic polyester or polyether polyol prepared from condensation of a dicarboxylic acid, e.

In one embodiment, the polyester polyol comprises adipic acid and diethylene glycol. The multifunctional isocyanate may comprise methylene dicyclohexylisocyanate or 1 ,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

The hydroxy- functionalized meth acrylate may comprise a hydroxyalkyl meth acrylate such as 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl meth acrylate, 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate, or polyethylene glycol meth acrylate. In one embodiment, the multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomer comprises the reaction product of a polyester polyol, methylene dicyclohexylisocyanate, and hydroxyethyl acrylate.

Useful multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomers include products that are commercially available. For example, the multifunctional aliphatic urethane meth acrylate oligomer may comprise urethane diacrylate CN, CN, and CN 1 available from Sartomer, Co. In general, the multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomer may be used in any amount depending on other components used to form the adhesive layer as well as the desired properties of the adhesive layer.

The adhesive layer may comprise from about 15 to about 50 wt. The multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer may comprise a multifunctional polyester meth acrylate oligomer. Useful multifunctional polyester acrylate oligomers include products that are commercially available. For example, the multifunctional polyester acrylate may comprise BE 1 available from Bomar Specialties Co.

The multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer may comprise a multifunctional polyether meth acrylate oligomer. Useful multifunctional polyether acrylate oligomers include products that are commercially available. The reaction product that forms the adhesive layer is formed from a reactive diluent. The reactive diluent may comprise more than one monomer, for example, from two to five different monomers.

Examples of these monomers include isobornyl acrylate, isobornyl meth acrylate, tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate, tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate, alkoxylated tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate, alkoxylated methacrylate, tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate and mixtures thereof. For example, the reactive diluent may comprise tetrahydrofurfuryl meth acrylate and isobornyl meth acrylate.

For another example, the reactive diluent may comprise alkoxylated tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate and isobornyl acrylate. In general, the reactive diluent may be used in any amount depending on other components used to form the adhesive layer as well as the desired properties of the adhesive layer.

The particular reactive diluent used, and the amount s of monomer s used, may depend on a variety of factors. The adhesive layer comprises a plasticizer that increases its softness and flexibility. Plasticizers are well known and typically do not participate in polymerization of meth acrylate groups.

The plasticizer may comprise more than one plasticizer material. The plasticizer may comprise oil. Suitable oils include vegetable oil, mineral oil and soybean oil. The particular plasticizer used, as well as the amount used, may depend on a variety of factors.

The reaction product that forms the adhesive layer may further comprise a mono functional. This monofunctional meth acrylate monomer having alkylene oxide functionality may comprise more than one monomer.

Alkylene functionality includes ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. The glycol functionality is comprised of units, and the monomer may have anywhere from 1 to 10 alkylene oxide units, from 1 to 8 alkylene oxide units, or from 4 to 6 alkylene oxide units.

This monomer has 6 propylene glycol units. This monomer has on average 7. The adhesive layer may comprise from about 5 to about 30 wt. The particular monomer used, as well as the amount used, may depend on a variety of factors. The adhesive layer has little or no tackifier as described above. Tackifiers are typically used to increase the tackiness of an adhesive. The particular tackifier used, as well as the amount used, may depend on a variety of factors.

The adhesive layer may comprise: The reaction product may further comprise from about 10 to about 20 wt. The optical assembly may comprise a display panel; a substantially transparent substrate; and an adhesive layer disposed between the display panel and the substantially transparent substrate, the adhesive layer comprising: The multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer comprises any one or more of a multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomer; a multifunctional polyester meth acrylate oligomer; and a multifunctional polyether meth acrylate oligomer.

The a tetrahydrofurfuryl meth acrylate may comprise an alkoxylated a tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate The monofimctional meth acrylate monomer having alkylene oxide functionality may have from 1 to 10 alkylene oxide units.

The multifunctional rubber-based meth acrylate oligomer comprising any one or more of: The multifunctional rubber-based meth acrylate oligomer may comprise a multifunctional polybutadiene meth acrylate oligomer. The monofimctional meth acrylate monomer having a pendant alkyl group of from 4 to 20 carbon atoms may comprise a pendant group having from 8 to 20 carbon atoms.

The liquid rubber may comprise liquid isoprene. Useful multifunctional polybutadiene meth acrylate oligomers include the difunctional polybutadiene meth acrylate oligomer CN available from Sartomer Co.

Useful multifunctional polyisoprene meth acrylate oligomers include the methacrylated isoprene oligomers UC- and UC available from Kuraray America, Inc.

Useful monofunctional meth acrylate monomers having pendant alkyl groups of from 4 to 20 carbon atoms include 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, lauryl acrylate, isodecyl acrylate, and stearyl acrylate. The adhesive layer may comprise tackifier. Tackifiers are well known and are used to increase the tack or other properties of an adhesive. There are many different types of tackifiers but nearly any tackifier can be classified as: The adhesive layer may comprise, e.

The adhesive layer may be substantially free of tackifier comprising, e. The adhesive layer may be free of tackifier. The adhesive layer may be soft, for example, the layer may have a Shore A hardness of less than about 30, less than about 20 or less than about The adhesive layer may exhibit little or no shrinkage, e.

In another embodiment, the adhesive may be silicone based. For example the adhesive may be using addition curing chemistry between a silicon hydride functional silicone and a vinyl or allyl functional silicone. Addition curing silicones are well known in the art and they often incorporate platinum based catalysts that can be activated by heat or UV irradiation. Likewise two-component silicone liquid adhesives or gel forming materials may be used as the basis for this thixotropic, printable material.

These types of silicones may rely on condensation chemistry and require heat to accelerate the curing mechanism. In general, the adhesive layer may comprise metal oxide particles, for example, to modify the refractive index of the adhesive layer or the viscosity of the liquid adhesive composition as described below.

Metal oxide particles that are substantially transparent may be used. Examples of metal oxide particles include clay, A, Zr02, Ti02, V, ZnO, Sn02, ZnS, Si02, and mixtures thereof, as well as other sufficiently transparent non-oxide ceramic materials.

The metal oxide particles can be surface treated to improve dispersibility in the adhesive layer and the composition from which the layer is coated. Examples of surface treatment chemistries include silanes, siloxanes, carboxylic acids, phosphonic acids, zirconates, titanates, and the like.

Techniques for applying such surface treatment chemistries are known. Organic fillers such as cellulose, castor-oil wax and polyamide-containing fillers may also be used.

In some embodiments, the adhesive layer comprises a fumed silica. Suitable fumed silicas include, but are not limited to: Metal oxide particles may be used in an amount needed to produce the desired effect, for example, in an amount of from about 2 to about 10 wt.

Metal oxide particles may only be added to the extent that they do not add undesirable color, haze or transmission characteristics. Generally, the particles can have an average particle size of from about 1 nm to about nm. In some embodiments, the liquid optically clear adhesive comprises nonreactive oligomeric rheology modifiers.

While not wishing to be bound by theory, non reactive oligomeric rheology modifiers build viscosity at low shear rates through hydrogen bonding or other self-associating mechanisms.

Examples of suitable nonreactive oligomeric rheology modifiers include, but are not limited to: In some embodiments, non-reactive oligomeric rheology modifiers are chosen to be miscible and compatible with the optically clear adhesive to limit phase separation and minimize haze. In some embodiments, the adhesive layer may be formed from a thixotropic liquid optically clear adhesive.

As used herein, a composition is considered thixotropic if the composition shear thins, i. Such adhesives exhibit little or no flow under zero or near-zero stress conditions. The advantage of the thixotropic property is that the adhesive can be dispensed easily by such processes as needle dispensing due to the rapid decrease in viscosity under low shear rate conditions.

The main advantage of thixotropic behavior over simply high viscosity is that high viscosity adhesive is difficult to dispense and to flow during application. Adhesive compositions can be made thixotropic by adding particles to the compositions. In some embodiments, any liquid optically clear adhesive having a viscosity of no more than 50 Pa-s, between about 2 and about 30 Pa-s and particularly between about 5 and about 20 Pa-s at a shear rate of 1 to 10 sec "1 can be combined with a thixotropic agent to form a thixotropic liquid optically clear adhesive suitable for the coating process.

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The particular multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer used, as well as the amount used, may depend on a variety of factors. The multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer may comprise a multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomer having at least two meth acrylate groups, e. In general, these oligomers comprise the reaction product of a polyol with a multifunctional isocyanate, followed by termination with a hydroxy- functionalized meth acrylate.

For example, the multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomer may be formed from an aliphatic polyester or polyether polyol prepared from condensation of a dicarboxylic acid, e.

In one embodiment, the polyester polyol comprises adipic acid and diethylene glycol. The multifunctional isocyanate may comprise methylene dicyclohexylisocyanate or 1 ,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. The hydroxy- functionalized meth acrylate may comprise a hydroxyalkyl meth acrylate such as 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl meth acrylate, 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate, or polyethylene glycol meth acrylate. In one embodiment, the multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomer comprises the reaction product of a polyester polyol, methylene dicyclohexylisocyanate, and hydroxyethyl acrylate.

Useful multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomers include products that are commercially available. For example, the multifunctional aliphatic urethane meth acrylate oligomer may comprise urethane diacrylate CN, CN, and CN 1 available from Sartomer, Co. In general, the multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomer may be used in any amount depending on other components used to form the adhesive layer as well as the desired properties of the adhesive layer.

The adhesive layer may comprise from about 15 to about 50 wt. The multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer may comprise a multifunctional polyester meth acrylate oligomer. Useful multifunctional polyester acrylate oligomers include products that are commercially available. For example, the multifunctional polyester acrylate may comprise BE 1 available from Bomar Specialties Co. The multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer may comprise a multifunctional polyether meth acrylate oligomer.

Useful multifunctional polyether acrylate oligomers include products that are commercially available. The reaction product that forms the adhesive layer is formed from a reactive diluent.

The reactive diluent may comprise more than one monomer, for example, from two to five different monomers. Examples of these monomers include isobornyl acrylate, isobornyl meth acrylate, tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate, tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate, alkoxylated tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate, alkoxylated methacrylate, tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate and mixtures thereof.

For example, the reactive diluent may comprise tetrahydrofurfuryl meth acrylate and isobornyl meth acrylate. For another example, the reactive diluent may comprise alkoxylated tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate and isobornyl acrylate. In general, the reactive diluent may be used in any amount depending on other components used to form the adhesive layer as well as the desired properties of the adhesive layer.

The particular reactive diluent used, and the amount s of monomer s used, may depend on a variety of factors. The adhesive layer comprises a plasticizer that increases its softness and flexibility. Plasticizers are well known and typically do not participate in polymerization of meth acrylate groups.

The plasticizer may comprise more than one plasticizer material. The plasticizer may comprise oil. Suitable oils include vegetable oil, mineral oil and soybean oil. The particular plasticizer used, as well as the amount used, may depend on a variety of factors. The reaction product that forms the adhesive layer may further comprise a mono functional.

This monofunctional meth acrylate monomer having alkylene oxide functionality may comprise more than one monomer. Alkylene functionality includes ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. The glycol functionality is comprised of units, and the monomer may have anywhere from 1 to 10 alkylene oxide units, from 1 to 8 alkylene oxide units, or from 4 to 6 alkylene oxide units. This monomer has 6 propylene glycol units. This monomer has on average 7. The adhesive layer may comprise from about 5 to about 30 wt.

The particular monomer used, as well as the amount used, may depend on a variety of factors. The adhesive layer has little or no tackifier as described above. Tackifiers are typically used to increase the tackiness of an adhesive. The particular tackifier used, as well as the amount used, may depend on a variety of factors. The adhesive layer may comprise: The reaction product may further comprise from about 10 to about 20 wt.

The optical assembly may comprise a display panel; a substantially transparent substrate; and an adhesive layer disposed between the display panel and the substantially transparent substrate, the adhesive layer comprising: The multifunctional meth acrylate oligomer comprises any one or more of a multifunctional urethane meth acrylate oligomer; a multifunctional polyester meth acrylate oligomer; and a multifunctional polyether meth acrylate oligomer.

The a tetrahydrofurfuryl meth acrylate may comprise an alkoxylated a tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate The monofimctional meth acrylate monomer having alkylene oxide functionality may have from 1 to 10 alkylene oxide units. The multifunctional rubber-based meth acrylate oligomer comprising any one or more of: The multifunctional rubber-based meth acrylate oligomer may comprise a multifunctional polybutadiene meth acrylate oligomer.

The monofimctional meth acrylate monomer having a pendant alkyl group of from 4 to 20 carbon atoms may comprise a pendant group having from 8 to 20 carbon atoms. The liquid rubber may comprise liquid isoprene.

Useful multifunctional polybutadiene meth acrylate oligomers include the difunctional polybutadiene meth acrylate oligomer CN available from Sartomer Co. Useful multifunctional polyisoprene meth acrylate oligomers include the methacrylated isoprene oligomers UC- and UC available from Kuraray America, Inc. Useful monofunctional meth acrylate monomers having pendant alkyl groups of from 4 to 20 carbon atoms include 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, lauryl acrylate, isodecyl acrylate, and stearyl acrylate.

The adhesive layer may comprise tackifier. Tackifiers are well known and are used to increase the tack or other properties of an adhesive. There are many different types of tackifiers but nearly any tackifier can be classified as: The adhesive layer may comprise, e. The adhesive layer may be substantially free of tackifier comprising, e.

The adhesive layer may be free of tackifier. The adhesive layer may be soft, for example, the layer may have a Shore A hardness of less than about 30, less than about 20 or less than about The adhesive layer may exhibit little or no shrinkage, e. In another embodiment, the adhesive may be silicone based. For example the adhesive may be using addition curing chemistry between a silicon hydride functional silicone and a vinyl or allyl functional silicone.

Addition curing silicones are well known in the art and they often incorporate platinum based catalysts that can be activated by heat or UV irradiation. Likewise two-component silicone liquid adhesives or gel forming materials may be used as the basis for this thixotropic, printable material. These types of silicones may rely on condensation chemistry and require heat to accelerate the curing mechanism. In general, the adhesive layer may comprise metal oxide particles, for example, to modify the refractive index of the adhesive layer or the viscosity of the liquid adhesive composition as described below.

Metal oxide particles that are substantially transparent may be used. Examples of metal oxide particles include clay, A, Zr02, Ti02, V, ZnO, Sn02, ZnS, Si02, and mixtures thereof, as well as other sufficiently transparent non-oxide ceramic materials. The metal oxide particles can be surface treated to improve dispersibility in the adhesive layer and the composition from which the layer is coated. Examples of surface treatment chemistries include silanes, siloxanes, carboxylic acids, phosphonic acids, zirconates, titanates, and the like.

Techniques for applying such surface treatment chemistries are known. Organic fillers such as cellulose, castor-oil wax and polyamide-containing fillers may also be used. In some embodiments, the adhesive layer comprises a fumed silica. Suitable fumed silicas include, but are not limited to: Metal oxide particles may be used in an amount needed to produce the desired effect, for example, in an amount of from about 2 to about 10 wt.

Metal oxide particles may only be added to the extent that they do not add undesirable color, haze or transmission characteristics. Generally, the particles can have an average particle size of from about 1 nm to about nm. In some embodiments, the liquid optically clear adhesive comprises nonreactive oligomeric rheology modifiers. While not wishing to be bound by theory, non reactive oligomeric rheology modifiers build viscosity at low shear rates through hydrogen bonding or other self-associating mechanisms.

Examples of suitable nonreactive oligomeric rheology modifiers include, but are not limited to: In some embodiments, non-reactive oligomeric rheology modifiers are chosen to be miscible and compatible with the optically clear adhesive to limit phase separation and minimize haze. In some embodiments, the adhesive layer may be formed from a thixotropic liquid optically clear adhesive.

As used herein, a composition is considered thixotropic if the composition shear thins, i. Such adhesives exhibit little or no flow under zero or near-zero stress conditions. The advantage of the thixotropic property is that the adhesive can be dispensed easily by such processes as needle dispensing due to the rapid decrease in viscosity under low shear rate conditions. The main advantage of thixotropic behavior over simply high viscosity is that high viscosity adhesive is difficult to dispense and to flow during application.

Adhesive compositions can be made thixotropic by adding particles to the compositions. In some embodiments, any liquid optically clear adhesive having a viscosity of no more than 50 Pa-s, between about 2 and about 30 Pa-s and particularly between about 5 and about 20 Pa-s at a shear rate of 1 to 10 sec "1 can be combined with a thixotropic agent to form a thixotropic liquid optically clear adhesive suitable for the coating process.

The efficiency of the thixotropic agent and the optical properties depend on the composition of the liquid optically clear adhesive and its interaction with the thixotropic agent. For example, in the case of associative thixotropes or hydrophilic silica, the presence of highly polar monomers such as acrylic acid, acid or hyxdroxyl containing monomers or oligomers may disrupt the thixotropic or optical performance.

In some embodiments, the viscosities of the liquid optically clear adhesive may be controlled at two or more different shear rates. In some embodiments, the adhesive layer has a displacement creep of about 0. Particularly, the liquid optically clear adhesive has a displacement creep of about 0.

In general, displacement creep is a value determined by using an AR Rheometer manufactured by TA Instruments and a 40 mm diameter x lo cone at 25oC, and is defined as the rotational angle of the cone when a stress of 10 Pa is applied to the adhesive.

The displacement creep is related to the ability of the thixotropic adhesive layer to resist flow, or sag, under very low stress conditions, such as gravity and surface tension. In some embodiments, the liquid optically clear adhesive has a delta of 45 degrees or less, particularly 42 or less, particularly 35 degrees or less and more particularly 30 degrees or less when a torque of 80 microN-m is applied at a frequency of 1 Hz in a cone and plate rheometer.

Delta is the phase lag between stress and strain where an oscillatory force stress is applied to a material and the resulting displacement strain is measured. Delta is assigned units of degrees. The delta is related to the "solid" behavior of the thixotropic adhesive layer or its non-sag property at very low oscillatory stress. The adhesive layer also has the ability to regain its non-sag structure within a short amount of time after passing underneath equipment, such as a squeegee in stencil printing applications.

In one embodiment, the recovery time of the adhesive layer is less than about 60 seconds, particularly less than about 30 seconds, and more particularly less than about 10 seconds to reach a delta of 35 degrees after a torque of about microN-m is applied for about 60 seconds at a frequency of 1 Hz and immediately followed by a torque of 80 microN-m at a frequency of 1 Hz. Photoinitiators may be used in the liquid compositions when curing with UV radiation.

Photoinitiators for free radical curing include organic peroxides, azo compounds, quinines, nitro compounds, acyl halides, hydrazones, mercapto compounds, pyrylium compounds, imidazoles, chlorotriazines, benzoin, benzoin alkyl ethers, ketones, phenones, and the like. The photoinitiator is often used at a concentration of about 0. The liquid compositions and adhesive layers can optionally include one or more additives such as chain transfer agents, antioxidants, stabilizers, fire retardants, viscosity modifying agents, antifoaming agents, antistatic agents and wetting agents.

If color is required for the optical adhesive, colorants such as dyes and pigments, fluorescent dyes and pigments, phosphorescent dyes and pigments can be used. The adhesive layers described above are formed by curing an adhesive composition or liquid composition.

Electron beam radiation may also be used. The liquid compositions described above are said to be cured using actinic radiation, i. For example, actinic radiation may comprise radiation of from about to about nm.

Sources of actinic radiation include tungsten halogen lamps, xenon and mercury arc lamps, incandescent lamps, germicidal lamps, fluorescent lamps, lasers and light emitting diodes.

UV-radiation can be supplied using a high intensity continuously emitting system such as those available from Fusion UV Systems. In some embodiments, actinic radiation may be applied to a layer of the liquid composition such that the composition is partially polymerized. The liquid composition may be disposed between the display panel and the substantially transparent substrate and then partially polymerized.

The liquid composition may be disposed on the display panel or the substantially transparent substrate and partially polymerized, then the other of the display panel and the substrate may be disposed on the partially polymerized layer.

In some embodiments, actinic radiation may be applied to a layer of the liquid composition such that the composition is completely or nearly completely polymerized. The liquid composition may be disposed between the display panel and the substantially transparent substrate and then completely or nearly completely polymerized.

The liquid composition may be disposed on the display panel or the substantially transparent substrate and completely or nearly completely polymerized, then the other of the display panel and the substrate may be disposed on the polymerized layer.

In the assembly process, it is generally desirable to have a layer of the liquid composition that is substantially uniform. The two components are held securely in place. If desired, uniform pressure may be applied across the top of the assembly. Masking may be required to protect components from overflow. Trapped pockets of air may be prevented or eliminated by vacuum or other means. Radiation may then be applied to form the adhesive layer. The optical assembly may be prepared by creating an air gap or cell between the two components and then disposing the liquid composition into the cell.

An example of this method is described in U. Adhering may be carried out using any type of adhesive, e. Then, the liquid composition is poured into the cell through an opening at a periphery edge. Alternatively, the liquid composition is injected into the cell maybe using some pressurized injection means such as a syringe. Another opening is required to allow air to escape as the cell is filled.

Exhaust means such as vacuum may be used to facilitate the process. Actinic radiation or heat may then be applied as described above to form the adhesive layer. The optical assembly may be prepared using an assembly fixture such as the one described in U. In this method, a fixture comprising a flat plate with pins pressed into the flat plate is provided. The pins are positioned in a predetermined configuration to produce a pin field which corresponds to the dimensions of the display panel and of the component to be attached to the display panel.

The pins are arranged such that when the display panel and the other components are lowered down into the pin field, each of the four corners of the display panel and other components is held in place by the pins. The fixture aids assembly and alignment of the components of an optical assembly with suitable control of alignment tolerances.

Additional embodiments of this assembly method are described in Sampica et al. The display panel may comprise any type of panel such as a liquid crystal display panel. Liquid crystal display panels are well known and typically comprise a liquid crystal material disposed between two substantially transparent substrates such as glass or polymer substrates. As used herein, substantially transparent refers to a substrate that is suitable for optical applications, e.

On the inner surfaces of the substantially transparent substrates are transparent electrically conductive materials that function as electrodes. In some cases, on the outer surfaces of the substantially transparent substrates are polarizing films that pass essentially only one polarization state of light.

When a voltage is applied selectively across the electrodes, the liquid crystal material reorients to modify the polarization state of light, such that an image is created. The liquid crystal display panel may also comprise a liquid crystal material disposed between a thin film transistor array panel having a plurality of thin film transistors arranged in a matrix pattern and a common electrode panel having a common electrode.

The display panel may comprise a plasma display panel. Plasma display panels are well known and typically comprise an inert mixture of noble gases such as neon and xenon disposed in tiny cells located between two glass panels. Control circuitry charges electrodes within the panel which causes the gases to ionize and form a plasma, which then excites phosphors to emit light.

The display panel may comprise an organic electroluminescence panel. These panels are essentially a layer of an organic material disposed between two glass panels. These panels are well known. The display panel may comprise an electrophoretic display. Electrophoretic displays are well known and are typically used in display technology referred to as electronic paper or e-paper.

Electrophoretic displays comprise a liquid charged material disposed between two transparent electrode panels. Liquid charged material may comprise nanoparticles, dyes and charge agents suspended in a nonpolar hydrocarbon, or microcapsules filled with electrically charged particles suspended in a hydrocarbon material.

The microcapsules may also be suspended in a layer of liquid polymer. The substantially transparent substrate used in the optical assembly may comprise a variety of types and materials.

The substantially transparent substrate may comprise glass or polymer. Useful glasses include borosilicate, sodalime, and other glasses suitable for use in display applications as protective covers.

The substantially transparent substrate typically has a thickness of from about 0. The substantially transparent substrate may comprise a touch screen. Touch screens are well known and generally comprise a transparent conductive layer disposed between two substantially transparent substrates. For example, a touch screen may comprise indium tin oxide disposed between a glass substrate and a polymer substrate.

The optical assembly disclosed herein may be used in a variety of optical devices including, but not limited to, a handheld device such as a phone, a television, a computer monitor, a projector, a sign. The optical device may comprise a backlight. The present invention is more particularly described in the following examples that are intended as illustrations only, since numerous modifications and variations within the scope of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

Unless otherwise noted, all parts, percentages, and ratios reported in the following example are on a weight basis. Viscosities were measured using a steady state flow procedure with a frequency from 0. A liquid optically clear adhesive composition labeled as "LOCA-1" was prepared by mixing, on a weight basis, LOCA-1 was curtain coated onto a 3 inch 7. Two wooden dowels were used as "side-limiters" to stabilize the edges of the curtain coating.

The dowels were taped to the die such that, during the coating process, the edge of the fluid curtain just touched the dowel surface and then ran down the edge of the dowels.

The die was connected to a pressure pot. The pressure pot contained a small container, having an inside diameter of about 1. The pressure pot outlet, polyethylene tubing having a 0. The pot was sealed and pressurized to 30 psi kPa using compressed air, causing LOCA- 1 to be extruded from the die and forming a 5 inch wide fluid curtain. The glass plate was fed under the fluid curtain by hand at a rate of about 0.

A target substrate was placed under the applicator, which had been loaded with LOCA- 1. The applicator was mounted on a frame capable of moving the applicator. Movement of the applicator above substrate was controlled by an electro pneumatic servo motor. Adhesive quantity was pumped by metering pump to supply into slot die and dispensing amount was controlled by solenoid valves in slot die coating head.

The moving speed of the slot die was controllable between about 0. The application width of the slot die was about mm. It is understood that application width can be varied between about 50 to mm. Gap between slot die and target substrate was at about 1 mm. After adhesive was disposed onto the target substrate, planarity was checked. A target substrate was placed under the applicator, which was loaded with LOCA Gap between slot die and target substrate was at about 5 mm. A method for making an optical assembly is disclosed.

The method involves disposing a liquid optically clear composition with a coating head. The liquid optically clear composition is disposed onto a target substrate to form an optically clear adhesive layer for adhering elements in an optical assembly Geavanceerd zoeken naar patenten. Method of coating liquid optically clear adhesives onto rigid substrates WO A1. The liquid optically clear composition is disposed onto a target substrate to form an optically clear adhesive layer for adhering elements in an optical assembly.

The optical assembly includes a display panel bonded to another optical component and may be used in a display device. A method of making an optical assembly, comprising:. The method claim 1 further comprising a pre-metered coating system wherein the pre -metered coating system is selected from dosing pump, gear pump and positive displacement pump.

The method of claim 2 wherein the positive displacement pump is selected from servo-driven displacement pump and rod-driven displacement pump. View detailed content on suppliers and their products, services, and capabilities; access operational and financial risk info. Create, save and share shortlists, compare suppliers side-by-side, single-send RFIs to multiple suppliers. Website Last Modified December 16, Apply Qualifications Search Within Miles 10 miles 25 miles 50 miles miles miles miles 1, miles.

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