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Individuals with a knowledge of electronics who can make repairs quickly may want to consider a career as a slot machine technician.

Read about the training, skills, salary and employment outlook, to decide if this job is for you. Slot machine technicians install, troubleshoot and repair slot machines. They may work day or night shifts, using a variety of testing devices and tools to inspect mechanical and electrical systems of slot machines. They also are responsible for updating maintenance and repair logs and writing purchase orders for replacement parts.

Some employers require prospective slot machine technicians to have an associate's degree in electronics, but there also are several dedicated slot machine repair programs that teach the same skills. These programs include classes in circuit testing, electronic measurement and slot machine electronics.

Slot machine technicians also must obtain a gaming license, which requires a detailed background check to determine one's integrity. The ability to diagnose and make repairs quickly and effectively is the most important skill for this position. Individuals must have extensive knowledge of the mechanical and electrical components of slot machines.

They also must be trustworthy and have no criminal background.

Job opportunities should be best for those with experience in maintenance and repair. Individuals who enjoy working in a gaming environment might want to consider the gaming services occupation of slot supervisor. These professionals watch over the slot section, refill machines, reset machines after payouts and resolve customer complaints. A high school diploma usually suffices for employment.

Postsecondary specialized training is usually necessary to learn the skills to install or repair electrical equipment used for various industries. Education Requirements and Career Options. Slot machine technicians can learn on the job or through independent study of manuals. However, completing a training program Learn what it takes to become a molding machine technician.

Find out about salary potential and job growth in this field, and Read about the responsibilities of grinding machine technicians, who play an important role in manufacturing and production Copy machine technicians require little formal education.

Learn about the training, job duties and possible certification The listings below may include sponsored content but are popular choices among our users. Help us match you with schools that offer programs related to Mechanic and Repair Technologies.

Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Find schools that offer these popular programs. Career Definition for a Slot Machine Technician Slot machine technicians install, troubleshoot and repair slot machines. Bureau of Labor Statistics Required Education Some employers require prospective slot machine technicians to have an associate's degree in electronics, but there also are several dedicated slot machine repair programs that teach the same skills.

Skills Required The ability to diagnose and make repairs quickly and effectively is the most important skill for this position.

Career and Economic Outlook The U. Alternate Career Options Listed here are some alternatives in the field to slot machine repair: Slot Supervisor Individuals who enjoy working in a gaming environment might want to consider the gaming services occupation of slot supervisor. Electrical and Electronics Installer and Repairer Postsecondary specialized training is usually necessary to learn the skills to install or repair electrical equipment used for various industries.

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Machine Shop Courses with Training Programs. Educational Requirements and Employment Outlook. Medical Equipment Technician Video: Career Options and Educational Requirements. Slot Machine Technician School and Training Program Overviews Slot machine technicians can learn on the job or through independent study of manuals.

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Slot Supervisor Individuals who enjoy working in a gaming environment might want to consider the gaming services occupation of slot supervisor. Electrical and Electronics Installer and Repairer Postsecondary specialized training is usually necessary to learn the skills to install or repair electrical equipment used for various industries. What is your highest level of education? Show me all schools Near my home Online schools only I want to choose a state Enter zip: Online Machinist Training Programs and Courses.

Engraving Technician Career Information. Machine Shop Courses with Training Programs. Educational Requirements and Employment Outlook. Medical Equipment Technician Video: Career Options and Educational Requirements. Slot Machine Technician School and Training Program Overviews Slot machine technicians can learn on the job or through independent study of manuals. Wages For Related Jobs. Some College Complete your degree or find the graduate program that's right for you.

High School Diploma Explore schools that offer bachelor and associate degrees. Plan your undergraduate education. Schools you may like: An admission advisor from each school can provide more info about: Must be a high school graduate or have completed GED. Program Info Online Programs. Bachelor BS in Mechatronics. Program Info Classroom-Based Programs.

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What is your highest level of education completed? What is your age? Find your perfect school What is your highest level of education? Select highest level of education HS diploma. Master's Degree or higher. Large denomination slot machines are usually cordoned off from the rest of the casino into a "High Limit" area, often with a separate team of attendants to cater to the needs of those who play there. Slot machines common in casinos at this time are more complicated.

Most allow players to accept their winnings as credits, which may be "spent" on additional spins. In the last few years, new multi-denomination slot machines have been introduced. With these slot machines, the player can choose the value of each credit wagered the stake from a list of options.

Based upon the player's selection, the slot machine automatically calculates the number of credits the player receives in exchange for the cash inserted and displays the amount of available credits to the player. For example, a player could choose to wager one dollar per game on a nickel slot machine.

This eliminates the need for a player to find a specific denomination of a particular slot machine; they can concentrate on simply finding the machine and setting the denomination once they decide to play. Recently, some casinos have chosen to take advantage of a concept commonly known as "tokenization," where one token buys more than one credit.

A casino can configure slot machines of numerous different denominations to accept the same type of token. For example, all penny, nickel, quarter, and dollar slot machines could be configured to accept dollar tokens. This significantly reduces a casino's inventory costs and coin handling costs. A tokenized slot machine automatically calculates the number of credits the player receives in exchange for the token inserted and displays the amount of available credits to the player.

When a player chooses to collect his credits by pressing a "Cash Out" button , the slot machine will automatically divide the number of credits on the credit meter by the value of one token and return the result to the patron.

Any remainder is known as "residual credits" and cannot be collected. Residual credits must be either played or abandoned.

Bonus is a special feature of the particular game theme, which is activated when certain symbols appear in a winning combination. Bonuses vary depending upon the game. In other bonus rounds, the player is presented with several items on a screen from which to choose. As the player chooses items, a number of credits is revealed and awarded. Some bonuses use a mechanical device, such as a spinning wheel, that works in conjunction with the bonus to display the amount won.

Candle is a light on top of the slot machine. It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand pay is requested or a potential problem with the machine. Coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held.

When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a coin diverter automatically redirects, or "drops," excess coins into a "drop bucket" or "drop box. Credit meter is a visual LED display of the amount of money or credits on the machine. On video reel machines this is either a simulated LED display, or represented in a different font altogether, based on the design of the game graphics. Drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper.

Typically, a drop bucket is used for low denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high denomination slot machines. A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid. The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled basis. Hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself.

A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator. Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes.

A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay. Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishments of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players. The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.

MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low Level or Slant Top slot machines include a stool so the player has sitdown access. Stand Up or Upright slot machines are played while standing.

Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game. Payline is a straight or zig-zagged line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated. Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Rollup is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won.

Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players. The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine.

Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting. Only rarely will machines fail to pay out even the minimum placed bet over the course of several pulls. Tilt Electromechanical slot machines usually include an electromechanical " tilt switch ," which makes or breaks a circuit if the machine is tilted or otherwise tampered with, and so triggers an alarm. While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc.

Theoretical Hold Worksheet A document provided by the manufacturer for all slot machines, which indicates the theoretical percentage that the slot machine should hold based on the amount paid in. The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine. Weight count is an American term, referring to the dollar amount of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box and counted by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale.

Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine. Some symbols are wild and will pay if they are visible in any position, even if they are not on the pay line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels. Most video machines display the pay table when the player presses a "pay table" button or touches "pay table" on the screen; some have the pay table listed on the cabinet as well.

Until recently all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard. This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots, since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, [ citation needed ] allowing approximately 10, combinations, this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes.

In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel. A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could in fact occupy several stops on the multiple reel.

With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was 'so close', whereas in fact the probability is much lower. The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen.

In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three. This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so.

Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times. Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple 'lines', so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer.

As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same. The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place. To avoid the feeling that the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single line machine would be bets, and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a 20 line machine, it would only be 5 bets and would not seem significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet.

The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating random numbers [ citation needed ] , at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second. As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result.

This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation, because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence see Art of Computer Programming Volume 2 Chapter 3, Random numbers , and if the period is short, or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advantage player may be able to 'predict' the next result.

Having access to the PRNG code and seed values Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played.

Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed.

This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player. The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play.

Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par. A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written.

Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations. Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software.

The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one.

Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.

The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands. The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout.

The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays. In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout. He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PARS sheet is posted on a website.

They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine i. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings. Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.

Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino.

The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking. One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers. Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps.

The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice.

However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.

In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.

A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely. The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes.

After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made.

Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot. The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own.

In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot.

The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire. The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray.

This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.

Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw" used by notorious slot machine cheat Tommy Glenn Carmichael. However, more recent attempts at defrauding slot machines involve manipulating the EPROM, such as by directing microwaves toward it to disrupt its proper functioning.

Casino insiders such as Ronald Dale Harris have also been discovered manipulating the software in slot machines in order to defraud casino operators.

In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments. Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use. In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City.

Several states Illinois , Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently-anchored barges. Since Hurricane Katrina, Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline. Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission. In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines.

These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game".

A player redeems his winnings by pressing a button to print a ticket, which the bartender redeems for cash. For a list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. Native American casinos located in reservations are not permitted to have slot machines unless the tribe first reaches a pact with the state in which it is located per Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.

Typically, a pact entitles the state to receive a fraction of the gross revenue from slot machines. The statements are generalities, not actual laws for every jurisdiction. These classifications may vary from state to state.

This provision is known as the Johnson Act. Some states have restrictions on the type called "class" of slot machines that can be used in a casino or other gaming area. In this way, Class II slot machines mimic scratch-off lottery tickets in that each machine has an equal chance of winning a series of limited prizes.

Either class of slot machines may or may not have a player skill element. There is no such restriction for Class II games. Class II games are not so tightly regulated by the state. Many American casinos offer free memberships in "slot clubs," which return a fraction of the amount of money that is bet in the form of comps complimentary food, drinks, hotel rooms, or merchandise , or sometimes as cash or a promise to pay cash at a later date.

These clubs require that players use cards that are inserted into the slot machines, to allow the casinos to track the players' "action" how much each player bets and for how long , which is often used to establish levels of play that may make players eligible for additional comps. Australian-style gaming machines frequently use video displays to simulate physical reels, usually five. These machines have additional bonusing and second-screen features such as free games and bonus levels.

They also allow for multiple lines up to or multiple ways up to 3, to be played. Late in , there were , poker machines operating in Australia, which was 2. TNS had previously been commissioned by the Gaming Technologies Association [ 19 ] to conduct the World Count of Gaming Machines [ 20 ] in , , , and On multiway games, players play the entire position of each reel instead of fixed lines or patterns.

For instance, if a player plays 1 reel on a way game, they receive three symbols in the first reel which pay anywhere in the three positions, while all other reels pay in the centre only, with unused areas darkened. On the other end of the scale, if the player plays 5 reels, symbols can appear anywhere in the window and will pay as long as there is one in each reel.

Most games however still require the symbols appearing left to right, sometimes this even includes scatters. Other multiway games give you even more ways by using a 4x5 or 5x5 pattern, where there are up to 5 symbols in each reel, allowing for up to 1, and 3, ways to win respectively. These games typically cost more than their way Reel Power counterparts. Recently, IGT has also started to manufacture multiway games.

Robert Schumann

Individuals must have extensive knowledge of the mechanical and electrical components of slot machines. They also must be trustworthy and have no criminal background. Job opportunities should be best for those with experience in maintenance and repair. Individuals who enjoy working in a gaming environment might want to consider the gaming services occupation of slot supervisor.

These professionals watch over the slot section, refill machines, reset machines after payouts and resolve customer complaints. A high school diploma usually suffices for employment. Postsecondary specialized training is usually necessary to learn the skills to install or repair electrical equipment used for various industries. Education Requirements and Career Options.

Slot machine technicians can learn on the job or through independent study of manuals. However, completing a training program Learn what it takes to become a molding machine technician. Find out about salary potential and job growth in this field, and Read about the responsibilities of grinding machine technicians, who play an important role in manufacturing and production Copy machine technicians require little formal education. Learn about the training, job duties and possible certification The listings below may include sponsored content but are popular choices among our users.

Help us match you with schools that offer programs related to Mechanic and Repair Technologies. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Find schools that offer these popular programs. Career Definition for a Slot Machine Technician Slot machine technicians install, troubleshoot and repair slot machines. Bureau of Labor Statistics Required Education Some employers require prospective slot machine technicians to have an associate's degree in electronics, but there also are several dedicated slot machine repair programs that teach the same skills.

Skills Required The ability to diagnose and make repairs quickly and effectively is the most important skill for this position. Career and Economic Outlook The U. Alternate Career Options Listed here are some alternatives in the field to slot machine repair: Slot Supervisor Individuals who enjoy working in a gaming environment might want to consider the gaming services occupation of slot supervisor. Electrical and Electronics Installer and Repairer Postsecondary specialized training is usually necessary to learn the skills to install or repair electrical equipment used for various industries.

What is your highest level of education? Show me all schools Near my home Online schools only I want to choose a state Enter zip: Online Machinist Training Programs and Courses. Engraving Technician Career Information. Machine Shop Courses with Training Programs. Educational Requirements and Employment Outlook. Medical Equipment Technician Video: The drums could also be rearranged to further reduce a player's chance of winning.

Other early machines, such as the trade stimulator , gave out winnings in the form of fruit flavoured chewing gums with pictures of the flavours as symbols on the reels. The popular cherry and melon symbols derive from this machine. The payment of food prizes was a commonly used technique to avoid laws against gambling in a number of states, and for this reason a number of gumball and other vending machines were regarded with mistrust by the courts.

The two Iowa cases of State v. Ellis [ 6 ] and State v. Striggles [ 7 ] are both used in classes on criminal law to illustrate the concept of reliance upon authority as it relates to the axiomatic ignorantia juris non excusat "Ignorance of the law is no excuse".

Despite the fact that the result of the next use would be displayed on the machine, both courts ruled that "The inducement for each play was the chance that by that play the machine would be set to indicate that it would pay checks on the following play.

The thing that attracted the player was the chance that ultimately he would receive something for nothing. The machine appealed to the player's propensity to gamble, and that is [a] vice. In , Bally developed the first fully electromechanical slot machine called Money Honey , although earlier machines such as the High Hand draw poker machine by Bally had exhibited the basics of electromechanical construction as early as The electromechanical approach of the s allowed Money Honey to be the first slot machine with a bottomless hopper and automatic payout of up to coins without the help of an attendant.

The first true video slot machine was developed in in an industrial suite in Kearney Mesa, CA by N. This slot machine used a modified 19" Sony Trinitron color receiver for the display and logic boards for all slot machine functions. The prototype was mounted in a full size show-ready slot machine cabinet. The first production units went on trial in the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel. After some "cheat-proofing" modifications, the video slot machine was approved by the Nevada State Gaming Commission and eventually found popularity in the Las Vegas Strip and downtown casinos.

A person playing a slot machine purchases the right to play by inserting coins, cash, or in newer Ticket-In, Ticket-Out machines, a paper ticket with a barcode , into a designated slot on the machine.

The machine is then activated by means of a lever or button, or on newer machines, by pressing a touchscreen on its face. The game itself may or may not involve skill on the player's part — or it may create the illusion of involving skill while only being a game of chance. The object of the game is to win money from the machine.

The game usually involves matching symbols, either on mechanical reels that spin and stop to reveal one or several symbols, or on simulated reels shown on a video screen. The symbols are usually brightly colored and easily recognizable, such as images of fruits, numerals or letters, and simple shapes such as bells, diamonds, or hearts; newer video slot machines use animated cartoon characters and images of popular actors or singers in the case of themed slot machines, as described below.

Most games have a variety of winning combination of symbols, often posted on the face of the machine or available on a different screen, accessible by touching a button on the main touchscreen, on video slot machines.

If a player matches a combination according to the rules of the game, the slot machine pays the player cash or some other sort of value, such as extra games. There are many different kinds of gambling slot machines in places such as Las Vegas as well as casinos modeled after those in Las Vegas, including those operated on Native American reservations. Some of the most popular are the video poker machines, in which players hope to obtain a set of symbols corresponding to a winning poker hand.

Depending on the machine, players can play one, , or more hands at one time. Multi-line slot machines have become more popular since the s.

These machines have more than one payline, meaning that visible symbols that are not aligned on the main horizontal may be considered for winning combinations. Reel slot machines commonly have three or five paylines, while video slot machines may have 9, 15, 25, or as many as different paylines.

Most video slot machines have a themed game, some of which feature graphics and music based on popular entertainers, motion pictures or TV programs The Addams Family , I Dream of Jeannie , Happy Days , etc. Most accept variable amounts of credit to play with 1 to 15 credits per line being typical. The higher the amount bet, the higher the payout will be. There are also standard 3 to 5 reel electromechanical machines, of various types. These are the typical "one-armed bandits.

One of the main differences between video slot machines and reel machines is in the way payouts are calculated. With reel machines, the only way to win the maximum jackpot is to play the maximum number of coins usually 3, sometimes 4, or even 5 coins per spin. With video machines, the fixed payout values are multiplied by the number of coins per line that is being bet.

On the Wheel of Fortune video machine, the chances of triggering the bonus round or winning the maximum jackpot are exactly the same regardless of the number of coins bet on each line.

Large denomination slot machines are usually cordoned off from the rest of the casino into a "High Limit" area, often with a separate team of attendants to cater to the needs of those who play there. Slot machines common in casinos at this time are more complicated. Most allow players to accept their winnings as credits, which may be "spent" on additional spins. In the last few years, new multi-denomination slot machines have been introduced. With these slot machines, the player can choose the value of each credit wagered the stake from a list of options.

Based upon the player's selection, the slot machine automatically calculates the number of credits the player receives in exchange for the cash inserted and displays the amount of available credits to the player.

For example, a player could choose to wager one dollar per game on a nickel slot machine. This eliminates the need for a player to find a specific denomination of a particular slot machine; they can concentrate on simply finding the machine and setting the denomination once they decide to play. Recently, some casinos have chosen to take advantage of a concept commonly known as "tokenization," where one token buys more than one credit.

A casino can configure slot machines of numerous different denominations to accept the same type of token. For example, all penny, nickel, quarter, and dollar slot machines could be configured to accept dollar tokens.

This significantly reduces a casino's inventory costs and coin handling costs. A tokenized slot machine automatically calculates the number of credits the player receives in exchange for the token inserted and displays the amount of available credits to the player. When a player chooses to collect his credits by pressing a "Cash Out" button , the slot machine will automatically divide the number of credits on the credit meter by the value of one token and return the result to the patron.

Any remainder is known as "residual credits" and cannot be collected. Residual credits must be either played or abandoned. Bonus is a special feature of the particular game theme, which is activated when certain symbols appear in a winning combination. Bonuses vary depending upon the game. In other bonus rounds, the player is presented with several items on a screen from which to choose. As the player chooses items, a number of credits is revealed and awarded.

Some bonuses use a mechanical device, such as a spinning wheel, that works in conjunction with the bonus to display the amount won. Candle is a light on top of the slot machine. It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand pay is requested or a potential problem with the machine. Coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held. When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a coin diverter automatically redirects, or "drops," excess coins into a "drop bucket" or "drop box.

Credit meter is a visual LED display of the amount of money or credits on the machine. On video reel machines this is either a simulated LED display, or represented in a different font altogether, based on the design of the game graphics. Drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper.

Typically, a drop bucket is used for low denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high denomination slot machines. A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid. The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled basis.

Hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself. A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator.

Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay. Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishments of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players. The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.

MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low Level or Slant Top slot machines include a stool so the player has sitdown access. Stand Up or Upright slot machines are played while standing.

Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game. Payline is a straight or zig-zagged line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated. Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred.

Rollup is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won. Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players. The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine.

Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting. Only rarely will machines fail to pay out even the minimum placed bet over the course of several pulls. Tilt Electromechanical slot machines usually include an electromechanical " tilt switch ," which makes or breaks a circuit if the machine is tilted or otherwise tampered with, and so triggers an alarm.

While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc. Theoretical Hold Worksheet A document provided by the manufacturer for all slot machines, which indicates the theoretical percentage that the slot machine should hold based on the amount paid in. The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine.

Weight count is an American term, referring to the dollar amount of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box and counted by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale. Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine.

Some symbols are wild and will pay if they are visible in any position, even if they are not on the pay line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels. Most video machines display the pay table when the player presses a "pay table" button or touches "pay table" on the screen; some have the pay table listed on the cabinet as well.

Until recently all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard.

This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots, since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, [ citation needed ] allowing approximately 10, combinations, this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes.

In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel. A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could in fact occupy several stops on the multiple reel. With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel.

To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was 'so close', whereas in fact the probability is much lower. The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen.

In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three. This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so. Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times.

Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple 'lines', so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer. As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same. The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place.

To avoid the feeling that the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single line machine would be bets, and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a 20 line machine, it would only be 5 bets and would not seem significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet. The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating random numbers [ citation needed ] , at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second.

As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result. This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation, because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence see Art of Computer Programming Volume 2 Chapter 3, Random numbers , and if the period is short, or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advantage player may be able to 'predict' the next result.

Having access to the PRNG code and seed values Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played. Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed.

This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player. The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play.

Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par. A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.

Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software.

The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one. Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive.

As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots. The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply.

He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands. The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.

In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout. He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PARS sheet is posted on a website. They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts.

In addition, slight variations of each machine i. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings. Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.

Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking. One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers.

Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity.

Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice. However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.

In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine. A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.

The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made. Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot. The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own.

In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot. The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams.

One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire. The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray. This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines.

can also erase all

Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par. A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.

Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software. The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest.

The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table.

However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one. Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots. The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players.

This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands. The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.

In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout.

He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PARS sheet is posted on a website. They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine i.

The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings.

Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed. Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino.

The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking. One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers. Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps.

The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice. However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.

In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.

A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.

The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made. Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot.

The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own. In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot. The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright.

Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire. The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray.

This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.

Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw" used by notorious slot machine cheat Tommy Glenn Carmichael. However, more recent attempts at defrauding slot machines involve manipulating the EPROM, such as by directing microwaves toward it to disrupt its proper functioning.

Casino insiders such as Ronald Dale Harris have also been discovered manipulating the software in slot machines in order to defraud casino operators. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments. Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use.

In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Illinois , Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently-anchored barges. Since Hurricane Katrina, Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline.

Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission. In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines.

These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game". A player redeems his winnings by pressing a button to print a ticket, which the bartender redeems for cash.

For a list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. Native American casinos located in reservations are not permitted to have slot machines unless the tribe first reaches a pact with the state in which it is located per Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.

Typically, a pact entitles the state to receive a fraction of the gross revenue from slot machines. The statements are generalities, not actual laws for every jurisdiction.

These classifications may vary from state to state. This provision is known as the Johnson Act. Some states have restrictions on the type called "class" of slot machines that can be used in a casino or other gaming area. In this way, Class II slot machines mimic scratch-off lottery tickets in that each machine has an equal chance of winning a series of limited prizes.

Either class of slot machines may or may not have a player skill element. There is no such restriction for Class II games. Class II games are not so tightly regulated by the state. Many American casinos offer free memberships in "slot clubs," which return a fraction of the amount of money that is bet in the form of comps complimentary food, drinks, hotel rooms, or merchandise , or sometimes as cash or a promise to pay cash at a later date.

These clubs require that players use cards that are inserted into the slot machines, to allow the casinos to track the players' "action" how much each player bets and for how long , which is often used to establish levels of play that may make players eligible for additional comps. Australian-style gaming machines frequently use video displays to simulate physical reels, usually five. These machines have additional bonusing and second-screen features such as free games and bonus levels.

They also allow for multiple lines up to or multiple ways up to 3, to be played. Late in , there were , poker machines operating in Australia, which was 2. TNS had previously been commissioned by the Gaming Technologies Association [ 19 ] to conduct the World Count of Gaming Machines [ 20 ] in , , , and On multiway games, players play the entire position of each reel instead of fixed lines or patterns.

For instance, if a player plays 1 reel on a way game, they receive three symbols in the first reel which pay anywhere in the three positions, while all other reels pay in the centre only, with unused areas darkened. On the other end of the scale, if the player plays 5 reels, symbols can appear anywhere in the window and will pay as long as there is one in each reel.

Most games however still require the symbols appearing left to right, sometimes this even includes scatters. Other multiway games give you even more ways by using a 4x5 or 5x5 pattern, where there are up to 5 symbols in each reel, allowing for up to 1, and 3, ways to win respectively. These games typically cost more than their way Reel Power counterparts. Recently, IGT has also started to manufacture multiway games. Gaming machine manufacturer Konami Australia also made an alternative way of gaming by using patterns, where symbols pay adjacent to one another.

Most of these games have a hexagonal reel formation, and much like multiway games, any patterns not played are darkened out of use. On both systems, scatter symbols still pay in the darkened areas just like standard machines where scatters don't have to appear on a payline. The laws regulating the use of gaming machines in Australia are a matter for State governments, and as such they vary between States.

Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city as well as pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs. The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales in when they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state.

There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research. In the Australian Productivity Commission reported that Australia had nearly , poker machines, more than half of which were in New South Wales. This was based on gaming machines in casinos only, and at December there were , gaming machines very similar to Australia's poker machines operating in the United States compared to , operating in Australia.

The primary reason for this is that gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since and over that time the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory.

By way of comparison, the US State of Nevada which legalised gaming including slots several decades before NSW, had , slots operating. This new law also banned machines which would automatically play with the button held. All gaming machines in Victoria have an information screen accessible to the user by pressing the 'i key' button, showing the game rules, paytable, return to player percentage, and the top and bottom five combinations, with the odds shown.

These combinations are stated to be played on a minimum bet usually 1 credit per line, with 1 line or reel played , excluding feature wins. Western Australia only permits the use of particular forms of gaming machine in Burswood casino , and no gaming machines may be used elsewhere.

This policy the most restrictive in Australia had a long historical basis, and was reaffirmed by the Royal Commission into Gambling:. Independent candidate Andrew Wilkie , an anti-pokies campaigner, was elected to the Australian House of Representatives seat of Denison at the federal election. Wilkie was one of four crossbenchers who supported the Gillard Labor government following the hung parliament result. Wilkie immediately began forging ties with Xenophon as soon as it was apparent that he was elected.

The provision of slot machines is covered by the Gambling Act This superseded the Gaming Act Slot machines in the UK are categorised by definitions produced by the Gambling Commission as part of the legislation brought in with the Gambling Act of Casinos built under the provisions of the Act are allowed to house up to twenty machines categories B to D or any number of C or D machines instead. As defined by the Act, large casinos will have a maximum of one hundred and fifty machines of any combination of machines in categories B to D, within the total limit of one hundred and fifty subject to machine to table ratio of 5: Category A games were defined in preparation for the planned " Super Casinos.

As a result there are no lawful Category A games in the UK. Category B games are divided into subcategories. However, the differences between B1, B3 and B4 games are mainly the stake and prizes as defined in the above table. FOBTs are mainly found in licensed betting shops , or bookmakers, usually in the form of electronic roulette. The games are based on a random number generator and thus the probability of getting the jackpot in each game is independent of any other game, and these probabilities are all equal.

If a pseudorandom number generator is used instead of one that is truly random, the probabilities are not truly independent, since each pseudorandom number is determined at least in part by the one generated before it. Fruit machines are commonly found in pubs , clubs , and arcades. Machines commonly have three reels, but can be found with four or five reels with around sixteen to twenty-four symbols printed around them. The reels are spun each play, and if certain combinations of symbols appear then winnings are paid by the machine, or a subgame is played.

These games often have many extra features, trails and subgames with opportunities to win money; usually more than can be won from just the payouts on the reel combinations. Fruit machines in the UK almost universally have the following features, generally selected at random using a pseudorandom number generator:.

It is known for machines to pay out multiple jackpots, one after the other this is known as a streak or rave but each jackpot requires a new game to be played so as not to violate the law about the maximum payout on a single play.

Typically this involves the player only pressing the Start button for which a single credit is taken, regardless of whether this causes the reels to spin or not. Slot machines are a fairly new phenomenon and they can be found in mostly in pachinko parlors and the adult sections of amusement arcades , known as game centers. The machines are regulated with integrated circuits , and have six different levels changing the odds of a Indeed, the Japanese slot machines are "beatable.

For example, there must be three reels. Also, all reels must be accompanied by buttons which stop these reels, the reels may not spin faster than 80 revolutions per minute, and the reels must stop within 0. In practice, this translates to "the machines can't let the reels slip more than 4 symbols. While the machine is in bonus mode, the player is entertained with special winning scenes on the LCD display, and energizing music is heard, payout after payout. On many machines, when enough money to afford a bonus is taken in, the bonus is not immediately awarded.

Typically the game merely stops making the reels slip off the bonus symbols for a few games. If the player fails to hit the bonus during these "standby games," it is added to the "Stock" for later collection. Many current games, after finishing a bonus round, set the probability to release additional stock gained from earlier players failing to get a bonus last time the machine stopped making the reels slip for a bit very high for the first few games. As a result, a lucky player may get to play several bonus rounds in a row a "Renchan" , making payouts of 5, or even 10, coins possible.

The lure of "Stock" waiting in the machine, and the possibility of "Renchan" tease the gambler to keep feeding the machine. This is called being a " hyena. Many people may be gambling more than they can afford , and the big payouts also lure unsavory "hyena" types into the gambling halls. To address these social issues, a new regulation Version 5. Moreover, all Pachisuro machines must be re-evaluated for regulation compliance every three years.

Only time will tell how these changes will affect the Japanese Pachisuro industry. Skill stop buttons predated the Bally electromechanical slot machines of the s and 70s. They appeared on mechanical slot machines manufactured by Mills Novelty Co. These machines had modified reel-stop arms, which allowed them to be released from the timing bar, earlier than in a normal play, simply by pressing the buttons on the front of the machine, located between each reel.

These enabled the player to stop each reel, allowing a degree of 'skill' so as to satisfy the New Jersey gaming laws of the day which required that players were able to control the game in some way. The original conversion was applied to approximately 50 late model Bally slot machines and is the first known use of the skill stop on slot machines. Because the typical machine stopped the reels automatically in less than 10 seconds, weights were added to the mechanical timers to prolong the automatic stopping of the reels.

By the time the New Jersey Alcoholic Beverages Commission ABC had approved the conversion for use in New Jersey arcades the word was out and every other distributor began adding skill stops. The machines were a huge hit on the Jersey Shore and the remaining unconverted Bally machines were destroyed as they had become instantly obsolete. This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors see full disclaimer. All translations of slot machine.

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The English word games are: Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words left, right, up, down from the falling squares.

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words 3 letters or more as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame! Most English definitions are provided by WordNet. The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.

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Change the target language to find translations. Online Encyclopedia, Thesaurus, Dictionary definitions and more. Skills Required The ability to diagnose and make repairs quickly and effectively is the most important skill for this position. Career and Economic Outlook The U. Alternate Career Options Listed here are some alternatives in the field to slot machine repair: Slot Supervisor Individuals who enjoy working in a gaming environment might want to consider the gaming services occupation of slot supervisor.

Electrical and Electronics Installer and Repairer Postsecondary specialized training is usually necessary to learn the skills to install or repair electrical equipment used for various industries. What is your highest level of education? Show me all schools Near my home Online schools only I want to choose a state Enter zip: Online Machinist Training Programs and Courses. Engraving Technician Career Information. Machine Shop Courses with Training Programs.

Educational Requirements and Employment Outlook. Medical Equipment Technician Video: Career Options and Educational Requirements. Slot Machine Technician School and Training Program Overviews Slot machine technicians can learn on the job or through independent study of manuals.

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Get Started with Virginia College What is your highest level of education completed? Students must be at least 14 years old and have completed the 8th grade.

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Hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself. A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator.

Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay.

Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishments of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players. The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.

MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low Level or Slant Top slot machines include a stool so the player has sitdown access. Stand Up or Upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game. Payline is a straight or zig-zagged line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated.

Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Rollup is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won. Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players.

The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine.

Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting. Only rarely will machines fail to pay out even the minimum placed bet over the course of several pulls.

Tilt Electromechanical slot machines usually include an electromechanical " tilt switch ," which makes or breaks a circuit if the machine is tilted or otherwise tampered with, and so triggers an alarm.

While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc. Theoretical Hold Worksheet A document provided by the manufacturer for all slot machines, which indicates the theoretical percentage that the slot machine should hold based on the amount paid in. The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine.

Weight count is an American term, referring to the dollar amount of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box and counted by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale. Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine. Some symbols are wild and will pay if they are visible in any position, even if they are not on the pay line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels.

Most video machines display the pay table when the player presses a "pay table" button or touches "pay table" on the screen; some have the pay table listed on the cabinet as well. Until recently all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results.

Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard. This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots, since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, [ citation needed ] allowing approximately 10, combinations, this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes.

In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel. A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could in fact occupy several stops on the multiple reel.

With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was 'so close', whereas in fact the probability is much lower. The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen.

In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three.

This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so. Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times.

Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple 'lines', so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer.

As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same. The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place.

To avoid the feeling that the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single line machine would be bets, and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a 20 line machine, it would only be 5 bets and would not seem significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet.

The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating random numbers [ citation needed ] , at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second.

As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result. This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played. A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation, because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence see Art of Computer Programming Volume 2 Chapter 3, Random numbers , and if the period is short, or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advantage player may be able to 'predict' the next result.

Having access to the PRNG code and seed values Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played.

Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if he knows how the machine was programmed. This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player. The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play.

Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par. A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written.

Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations. Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently.

Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software. The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table.

However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one. Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive.

As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots. The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players.

This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands.

The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout.

The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays. In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout.

He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PARS sheet is posted on a website. They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts.

In addition, slight variations of each machine i. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings. Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.

Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking.

One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers. Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make.

A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice. However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.

In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.

A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.

The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made. Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot. The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own.

In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot. The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire. The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted.

However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray. This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.

Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw" used by notorious slot machine cheat Tommy Glenn Carmichael. However, more recent attempts at defrauding slot machines involve manipulating the EPROM, such as by directing microwaves toward it to disrupt its proper functioning.

Casino insiders such as Ronald Dale Harris have also been discovered manipulating the software in slot machines in order to defraud casino operators. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments. Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use.

In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Illinois , Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently-anchored barges. Since Hurricane Katrina, Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline. Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission.

In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines. These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game". A player redeems his winnings by pressing a button to print a ticket, which the bartender redeems for cash. For a list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. Native American casinos located in reservations are not permitted to have slot machines unless the tribe first reaches a pact with the state in which it is located per Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.

Typically, a pact entitles the state to receive a fraction of the gross revenue from slot machines. The statements are generalities, not actual laws for every jurisdiction. These classifications may vary from state to state. This provision is known as the Johnson Act. Some states have restrictions on the type called "class" of slot machines that can be used in a casino or other gaming area. In this way, Class II slot machines mimic scratch-off lottery tickets in that each machine has an equal chance of winning a series of limited prizes.

Either class of slot machines may or may not have a player skill element. There is no such restriction for Class II games. Class II games are not so tightly regulated by the state. Many American casinos offer free memberships in "slot clubs," which return a fraction of the amount of money that is bet in the form of comps complimentary food, drinks, hotel rooms, or merchandise , or sometimes as cash or a promise to pay cash at a later date.

These clubs require that players use cards that are inserted into the slot machines, to allow the casinos to track the players' "action" how much each player bets and for how long , which is often used to establish levels of play that may make players eligible for additional comps. Australian-style gaming machines frequently use video displays to simulate physical reels, usually five. These machines have additional bonusing and second-screen features such as free games and bonus levels.

They also allow for multiple lines up to or multiple ways up to 3, to be played. Late in , there were , poker machines operating in Australia, which was 2. TNS had previously been commissioned by the Gaming Technologies Association [ 19 ] to conduct the World Count of Gaming Machines [ 20 ] in , , , and On multiway games, players play the entire position of each reel instead of fixed lines or patterns. For instance, if a player plays 1 reel on a way game, they receive three symbols in the first reel which pay anywhere in the three positions, while all other reels pay in the centre only, with unused areas darkened.

On the other end of the scale, if the player plays 5 reels, symbols can appear anywhere in the window and will pay as long as there is one in each reel. Most games however still require the symbols appearing left to right, sometimes this even includes scatters.

Other multiway games give you even more ways by using a 4x5 or 5x5 pattern, where there are up to 5 symbols in each reel, allowing for up to 1, and 3, ways to win respectively. These games typically cost more than their way Reel Power counterparts. Recently, IGT has also started to manufacture multiway games. Gaming machine manufacturer Konami Australia also made an alternative way of gaming by using patterns, where symbols pay adjacent to one another.

Most of these games have a hexagonal reel formation, and much like multiway games, any patterns not played are darkened out of use. On both systems, scatter symbols still pay in the darkened areas just like standard machines where scatters don't have to appear on a payline. The laws regulating the use of gaming machines in Australia are a matter for State governments, and as such they vary between States. Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city as well as pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs.

The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales in when they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state. There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research.

In the Australian Productivity Commission reported that Australia had nearly , poker machines, more than half of which were in New South Wales. This was based on gaming machines in casinos only, and at December there were , gaming machines very similar to Australia's poker machines operating in the United States compared to , operating in Australia. The primary reason for this is that gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since and over that time the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory.

By way of comparison, the US State of Nevada which legalised gaming including slots several decades before NSW, had , slots operating. This new law also banned machines which would automatically play with the button held. All gaming machines in Victoria have an information screen accessible to the user by pressing the 'i key' button, showing the game rules, paytable, return to player percentage, and the top and bottom five combinations, with the odds shown. These combinations are stated to be played on a minimum bet usually 1 credit per line, with 1 line or reel played , excluding feature wins.

Western Australia only permits the use of particular forms of gaming machine in Burswood casino , and no gaming machines may be used elsewhere.

This policy the most restrictive in Australia had a long historical basis, and was reaffirmed by the Royal Commission into Gambling:. Independent candidate Andrew Wilkie , an anti-pokies campaigner, was elected to the Australian House of Representatives seat of Denison at the federal election.

Wilkie was one of four crossbenchers who supported the Gillard Labor government following the hung parliament result. Wilkie immediately began forging ties with Xenophon as soon as it was apparent that he was elected.

The provision of slot machines is covered by the Gambling Act This superseded the Gaming Act Slot machines in the UK are categorised by definitions produced by the Gambling Commission as part of the legislation brought in with the Gambling Act of Casinos built under the provisions of the Act are allowed to house up to twenty machines categories B to D or any number of C or D machines instead.

As defined by the Act, large casinos will have a maximum of one hundred and fifty machines of any combination of machines in categories B to D, within the total limit of one hundred and fifty subject to machine to table ratio of 5: Category A games were defined in preparation for the planned " Super Casinos.

As a result there are no lawful Category A games in the UK. Category B games are divided into subcategories. However, the differences between B1, B3 and B4 games are mainly the stake and prizes as defined in the above table. FOBTs are mainly found in licensed betting shops , or bookmakers, usually in the form of electronic roulette. The games are based on a random number generator and thus the probability of getting the jackpot in each game is independent of any other game, and these probabilities are all equal.

If a pseudorandom number generator is used instead of one that is truly random, the probabilities are not truly independent, since each pseudorandom number is determined at least in part by the one generated before it. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Find schools that offer these popular programs. Career Definition for a Slot Machine Technician Slot machine technicians install, troubleshoot and repair slot machines.

Bureau of Labor Statistics Required Education Some employers require prospective slot machine technicians to have an associate's degree in electronics, but there also are several dedicated slot machine repair programs that teach the same skills. Skills Required The ability to diagnose and make repairs quickly and effectively is the most important skill for this position. Career and Economic Outlook The U. Alternate Career Options Listed here are some alternatives in the field to slot machine repair: Slot Supervisor Individuals who enjoy working in a gaming environment might want to consider the gaming services occupation of slot supervisor.

Electrical and Electronics Installer and Repairer Postsecondary specialized training is usually necessary to learn the skills to install or repair electrical equipment used for various industries. What is your highest level of education? Show me all schools Near my home Online schools only I want to choose a state Enter zip: Online Machinist Training Programs and Courses. Engraving Technician Career Information.

Machine Shop Courses with Training Programs. Educational Requirements and Employment Outlook. Medical Equipment Technician Video: Career Options and Educational Requirements. Slot Machine Technician School and Training Program Overviews Slot machine technicians can learn on the job or through independent study of manuals. Wages For Related Jobs. Some College Complete your degree or find the graduate program that's right for you.

High School Diploma Explore schools that offer bachelor and associate degrees. Plan your undergraduate education. Schools you may like: An admission advisor from each school can provide more info about: Must be a high school graduate or have completed GED. Program Info Online Programs. Bachelor BS in Mechatronics. Program Info Classroom-Based Programs. Get Started with Brightwood College What is your highest level of education? Get Started with Virginia College What is your highest level of education completed?

Students must be at least 14 years old and have completed the 8th grade. Georgia 1 campus Ohio 2 campuses Pennsylvania 1. Non-Degree Welding Welding Technology.

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The original class of machine tools for milling was the milling and very light slot or face milling. A milling machine is often called a mill by machinists. In a machine shop, machinists use machine tools and cutting in variations on the slot machine are machine tools used in the machining. Tools and Holding Devices. One of the most commonly used work-holding devices is also called a drill press vise. The It has a continuous slot.

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